MSC Exosomes have been shown to carry cell-specific cargos—or exosomal cargos—of proteins, lipids, and like RNAs (Ribo Nucleic Acids), which can be selectively transferred to recipient cells in the body (located both near and far). In addition, through a form of cell-to-cell communication—or intercellular communication—known as paracrine signaling, exosomes deliver tiny messages (biochemical signals) from cell to cell, which alter the behavior of the recipient cells. As a result, these cells can orchestrate tissue regeneration, help control inflammation, repair injuries, and support regenerative therapies to treat certain diseases.

As an ideal vehicle for delivery, the lipid membrane of exosomes serves not only to protect exosome proteins and RNAs from degradation but also allows exosomes to reach cells in parts of the body that many drugs cannot.